NATURAL POLYMERS: CELLULOSE, CHITIN, CHITOSAN, GELATIN, STARCH, CARRAGEENAN, XYLAN AND DEXTRAN

Fatma Zohra Benabid, Fouad Zouai

Abstract


Biopolymers have been investigated for drug fields. They are widely being studied because of their non-toxic and biocompatible in nature. Biopolymers are used in industries as diverse as paper, plastics, food, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.This review  covers different natural polymers, recent techniques applied in their processing and characterization. Advanced applications of natural polymers, including chitin, chitosan, alginate, etc., are discussed.

 


Keywords


Natural polymers, applications, chemical structure, properties

Full Text:

HTML - PDF

References


Naga L. , Krishna V. et al. / IJDFR, volume 2 Issue 6, Nov.-Dec.2011

Jana S ,Gandhi A , Sen KK and Basu Sk, Natural Polymers and their Application in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Field, Journal of Pharma Sci. Tech., 2011, 1(1):16-27.

Jay R. Joshi and Ronak P. Patel, Role of biodegradable polymers in drug delivery, Int J Curr Pharm Res, 2012, Issue 4, 74-81.

Kulkarni Vishakha S, Butte Kishor D and Rathod Sudha S., Natural Polymers – A Comprehensive Review, International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, 3 (4) Oct – Dec 2012.

Ogaji IJ, Nep EI, Audu-Peter JD (2012) Advances in Natural Polymers as Pharmaceutical Excipients. Pharm Anal Acta 3:146. doi:10.4172/2153-2435.1000146.

Sartaz A., Nayyar P., Md. Aftab A. and Pramod Kumar S., FDA Approved Natural Polymers In Microsphere Formulation, World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol 5, Issue 03, 2016.

Lennholm H, Henriksson G. Cellulose and Carbohydrate Chemistry. In: Ek M, Gel‐ lerstedt G, Henriksson G, editors. Ljungberg Textbook Book 1: Wood Chemistry and Wood Biotechnology. Stockholm: Fiber and Polymer Technology, KTH; 2007. p. 73– 102.

Zugenmaier P. Conformation and packing of various crystalline cellulose fibers. Prog Polym Sci., 2001, 26(9):1341–417.

Xiaoyun Qiu and Shuwen Hu, “Smart” Materials Based on Cellulose: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications, Materials 2013, 6, 738-781.

Islem Younes and Marguerite Rinaudo, Chitin and Chitosan Preparation from Marine Sources. Structure, Properties and Applications, Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 1133-1174.

Marguerite Rinaudo, Chitin and chitosan: Properties and applications, Prog. Polym. Sci.,2006, 31,603–632.

Lu Y, Weng L, Zhang L, Morphology and properties of soy protein isolate thermoplastics reinforced with chitin whiskers. Biomacromolecules, 2004, 5(3):1046–1051.

Paillet M, Dufresne A, Chitin whisker reinforced thermoplastic nanocomposites, Macromolecules, 2001, 34(19):6527–6530.

Kulkarni Vishakha S, Butte Kishor D and Rathod Sudha S, Natural Polymers – A Comprehensive Review, International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Vol. 3 (4) Oct – Dec 2012, 1579-1613.

Islem Younes and Marguerite Rinaudo, Chitin and Chitosan Preparation from Marine Sources. Structure, Properties and Applications, Mar. Drugs, 2015, 13, 1133-1174.

Ravi Kumar, M.N.V.,Muzzarelli, R.A.A., Muzzarelli, C., Sashiwa, H. and Domb, A.J., Chitosan Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Perspectives, React. Funct. Polym. 2000, 46, 1–27.

Patil R.S., Ghormade V. and Deshpande M.V., Chitinolytic enzymes: An exploration. Enzym. Microb. Technol., 2000, 26, 473–483.

Shakeel Ahmed and Saiqa Ikram “Chitosan based composite materials for antimicrobial food packaging”, in book “Green Polymer Composites Technology: Properties and Applications” , Editor: Inamudin, CRC press, Taylor and Francis group (in press).

Thiewes HJ, Steeneken PAM, The glass transition and the sub-Tg endotherm of amorphous and native potato starch at low moisture content, Carbohydr Polym., 1997, 32(2): 123–130.

Moussaoui Y., Mnasri N., Elaloui E., Ben Salem R., Lagerge S. and de Menorval L. C., Preparation of chitosan gel, EPJ Web of Conferences 2009, 29,34.

Pesaramelli K., Macharla S. and Anishetty R., Chitosan: a biocompatible polymer for pharmaceutical applications in various dosage forms, IJPT, 2010, 2 Issue No.2 ,186-205.

Thomson R.C., Wake M.C., Yaszemski M.J. and Mikos A.G., Biodegradable Polymer Scaffolds to Regenerate Organs, Adv. Polym. Sci., 1995, 122, 245-274.

Avérous L. and Pollet E., Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites, Green Energy and Technology, Springer-Verlag London 2012.

James B. R., Settimio P., Alicia J. E.H. , Harminder S. D. , Andrew H. , Lisa J. W. and Felicity R. A. J. R., Gelatin-Based Materials in Ocular Tissue Engineering, Materials, 2014, 7, 3106-3135.

Lu D. R., Xiao C. M. and Xu , S. J. Starch-based completely biodegradable polymer materials, XPRESS Polymer Letters, 2009, 3,(6 ),366–375.

Buléon A., Colonna P., Planchot V. and Ball S., Starch granules: structure and biosynthesis, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 1998, 23, 85-112.

Blazek J. and Gilberta E.E., Application of small-angleX-ray and neutron scatteringtechniques to the characterization of starch structure: A review, Carbohydr.Polymers, 2011, 85, 281-293.

Campo V. L. , Kawano D. F., da Silva Jr. D. B. and Carvalho , I. Carrageenans: Biological properties, chemical modifications and structural analysis – A review, Carbohydr. Polymers, 2009, 77,167-180; Necas J. and L. Bartosikova, Carrageenan: a review, Veterinarni Medicina, 2013, 58, 187-205.

Falshaw R., Bixler H. J. and Johndro K., Structure and performance of commercial kappa-2 carrageenan extracts I. Structure analysis, Food Hydrocolloids, 2001, 15, 441-452.

Zhang W., Piculell L., Nilsson S. and Knutsen S. H., Cation specificity and cation binding to low sulfated carrageenans, Carbohydrate Polymers, 1994, 23, Issue 2, 105-110.

FAO Agar and Carrageenan Manual. Fao.org (1965-01-01). Retrieved on 2011-12-10.

Ünlu C. H., Günister E. and Atici O., Synthesis and characterization of NaMt biocomposites with corn cob xylan in aqueous media. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2009, 76 (4), 585-592.

Ebringerova A., Hromadkova Z. and Hribalova V., Structure and mitogenic activities of corn cob heteroxylans. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 1995, 17 (6), 327-331.

Shallom D. and Shoham Y., Microbial hemicellulases, Current Opinion in Microbiology, 2003, 6 (3), 219-228.

Ebringerova´ A. and Heinze T., Naturally occurring xylans structures, isolation procedures and properties, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 2000, 21, 542–556.

Lakshmi bhavani A. and nisha J., Dextran - the polysaccharide with versatile uses, International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 2010, 1 (4), 569-573.

Gopal Rao M., Bharathi P. and Akila RM., A Comprehensive Review on Biopolymers, Sci. Revs. Chem. Commun.,2014, 4(2), 61-68.

Parkinson T.M, Nature (London), 1967, 215, 415.

Damini K., Deeplina D., Seema P. and Arun G., Dextran and Food Application, 2014, Polysaccharides, 1-16.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.199036

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Fatma Zohra Benabid, Fouad Zouai

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

 

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Afficher l'image d'origine

 All open access articles published in AJNP are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

 

 Flag Counter