Utilization of Herbal Medicine Among Inhabitants of an Urban Centre in North-Central Nigeria

Joseph Oluyem, Muhammed Abubakar Yinusa, Abdullateef Raji, Joseph Adejoke


This study examined utilization of herbal medicine among inhabitants of Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria. 460 participants selected through multi-stage sampling technique were included in the study. Result showed that, Pile 20.2%, was the most treated illness with herbal medicine followed closely by malaria fever 17.7% and typhoid fever 14.9%. 46.0% of the participants utilise herbal medicine because of its efficiency in treatment while 15.8% used it because it works faster for them. Socio-demographic characteristics of participants found to affect utilization of herbal medicine  were: income (p=0.001), education (p=0.0001) and occupation (p=0.0005,while those found not to affect utilization of herbal medicine were: age (p=0.5330) and sex (p=0.0054).The study recommended massive enlightenment on the dangers involved in indiscrimate use of herbal medicine, regulation of herbal medicine, provision of health insurance scheme for Nigerians and more research into herbal medicine with a view to integrating it into the modern healthcare delivery system in Nigeria.


Herbal medicine; Utilization; Dogoyaro; Pile; Jedi-Jedi; Agbo- Iba

Full Text:



WHO. Traditional Medicine Fact Sheet No134. http://www.who.int/topics/traditional_medicine/en/

Bob, S. Recognition and Respect for African Traditional Medicine. Canada International Research Centre (2008).

Amole, O.O., Yemitan, O.K., & Oshikoya K.A. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Rauvolfia Vomitoria (Afzel). African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.Vol 3(6) (2009). pp 319-322

Ilori, M., Sheteolu, A.O., Omonigbehin, E.A., Adeneye, A.A. Anti-bacterial Activity of Occium Gratissimum (Lamiacere). J. Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 14: (1996). 283-285.

Okeniyi,I. Comparison of Healing of Incised Abscess Wounds with Honey and Ensol Dressing. J. Alter. Compl Med 11: (2005). 511-513.

Adegbehingbe, O.O., Adesanya, S.A, Idowu, T., & Iwalewa, O.E. Clinical Effects of Garcinia Kola in Knee Osteoarthritis. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research. 3(1) (2008) 34.

Oreagba, I., Oshikoya, K.A., & Amachree M. Herbal Medicine Use among Urban Residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (2011).

Carmen-Kasparek, M. The State of Herbal Medicine in Canada. Drug information Journal; 27: 15(1993)5-157.

World Health Organization). WHO Guidelines on Safety Monitoring of Herbal Medicine in Pharmacovigilance Systems. WHO, Geneva. (2004).

Adisa, R., Fakeye, T Assessment of the Knowledge of Community Pharmacists Regarding Common Phytophamaceuticals Sold in South-western Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 5(2): (2006). 619-625.

Romulo, R.N.A. Ierce, MLR. Biodiversity, Traditional Medicine in Public Health: Where do they meet? Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 3: 1(2007). 4.

Moody, J.O. Traditional Medicine Paper delivered at the Mandatory Continuing Professional Development (MCPD) Programme module v, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Nov, 21-22, (2007). pp 1-6.

Moshi, M.J. Current and Future Prospects of Integrating Traditional and Alternative Medicine in the Management of Diseases in Tanzania. Tanzania Health Research Bulletin. 7(3); (2005). 159-167.

Elujoba, A.A., Odeleye, O.M., & Ogunyemi, C.M. Traditional Medical Department for Medical and Dental Primary Health Care Delivery System in Africa. African Journal of Complimentary and Alternative Medicine 2(1) (2005). 46-61.

Pharmanews. The use of Herbal Medicine in Hospitals in Nigeria. Foremost Health Journal. (2010). 10-22.

Enyioko, N. C., & Samuel, O. Under Utilization of Modern Health Facilities and the Practice of Alternative Medicine in Rural Areas of Rivers State. (2012). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2187770 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2187770 .

Awoyemi, T.T., Obayelu, O.A & Opaluwa, H. Effects of Distance on Utilization of Health Care Services in Rural Kogi State, Nigeria. Human Ecol, 35 (1): 1(2011). 9.

Usifoh, S.F., & Udezi, A.W Social and Economic Factors Influencing the Patronage and Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Enugu. Journal of Pharmacy and Bio resources. Vol 10, (2013). No 1.

Raheem Usman Adebimpe, Climate Change Related Disasters and Vulnerability: An Appraisal of the Nigerian Policy Environment, Environmental Research Journal, 5(2011) 97-103.

Edward, M., Cooper, C., Dugald, S., & Kanfer, T. African Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An Overview of Evidence and Pharmacology. Nutritional Journal. 4(19). .( 2005).

Mills, E., Cooper C., Seely D., Kanfer I. African Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An Overview of Evidence and Pharmacology. Nutritional Journal. 4(19). (2005).

Kew, J., Morris C., Aihie, A.J Fysh, D., Jones, S., & Brooks, D . Arsenic and Mercury Intoxication due to Indian Ethnic Remedies. British Medical Journal 306: (1993). 506-507.

De Smet, P.A.. Should Herbal Medicine-like Products be licensed as Medicine? British Medical Journal. 310: (1991). 1023-1024.

Helwig, D. Traditional Africa Medicine, Gale Encyclopaedia of Alternative Medicine. (2005). Retrieved on 2/05/2016.

Ernst, E., Schmidt, K., Wider, B. CAM research in Britain: The last 10 years. Complement Ther. Clin. Pract.11:1(2005). 7–20.

Ribnicky, D. M., Poulev, A., Schmidt, B., Cefalu, W. T., Raskin, I. The science of botanical supplements for human health: A view from the NIH botanical research centres: Evaluation of botanicals for improving human health. Am J Clin Nutr.; 87: (2008). 472S–5S.

WHO, General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine. (2001).

Kantor, M. The Role of Rigorous Sacrifice Evaluation in the Use and Practice of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. J Am Coll Radiol, 6: (2009). 254-264.

Ilorin. Info. Man Allegedly Dies after Taking Herbal Mixture in Ilorin. Ilorin. Info. Available at: www. Ilorin.info. full news. (September 9 2012). Retrieved on 27/06/2016.

Ologe, M.O., Aboyeji, A.P., Ijaya, M.A., Adeshina, K.T., Adewara, A.A., & Olarionye, J.K. Herbal Use among Pregnant Mothers in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 28(7): 7(2008) 20-721.

Aluko, T. Trading in Traditional Medicine: The Challenges for Womanhood and the Health Care system in Nigeria, International Journal of Gender and Health Studies Vol. 2, No 1 and 2: (2005). 47-54.

Homans, G. Social Behaviour: Its Elementary Forms. London: (1961).Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Blume, L.E., Easley, D. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. 2nd Edition. (2008).

Rosenstock, I.M., Strecher, V.J & Becker, M.H. The Health Belief Model and HIV risk Behaviour Change. In R.J. Diclemente & J.L. Peterson (Eds) Preventing AIDS:Theories and Methods of Behavioural Interventions. Pp 5-24. New York, NY: (1994). Plenium Press.

Croyle, R.T. Theory at a glance; Application to health promotion and health behavior Heinemann Publishers. London. (2005).

Opara, E.R., & Osayi, K.K Factors Affecting Utilization of Herbal Medicine as Livelihood Alternatives among Residents of Imo State: (2016). The Role of Social Work Professionals Journal Of Humanities And Social Science Volume 21, Issue 5, pp. 66-78.

Glanz, K., Barbara, K., Rimer, K & Viswanath I. Health Behaviour and Health Education Theory: Theory, Research and Practice (4th ed). San Francisco, C(2008)..A: Jossey-Bass. pp.451.

Anderson, R. A Behavioural Model of Family Use of Health Services No 25, Chicago IL Centre for Disease and Administrative Studies, University of Chicago. (1968).

Wolinsky, F.D., & Johnson, R.J . The use of Health Services by Adults. J Gerontology 46(6) (1991). 345-357.

Guendelman, S. Healthcare Users Residing on the Mexican Border. What Factors Determine Choice of the U.S. or Mexican Health System? Med Care 29 (5): (1991). 419-429.

Portes, A., Kyle, D., Eaton, W.W Mental Illness and Help Seeking Behaviour among Meriel Cuban and Haitian Refugees in South Florida. Health Soc Behav 33(4): (1992). 283-29.

The World Gazetteer .Ilorin, Nigeria. Retrieved June 13, 2016. World Health Organization (2006) Doctor Patient Ratio in Africa, World Health Statistics.

Joseph, A. O., Muhammed, A.Y., Raji, A., Akoh, S., & Kadiri, K. Factors Influencing the Practice of Self Medication among Bankers in Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development Africa.Vol 17, No 1. (2015). pp 64-76.

Harries, A.D & Cullinan, T Hebis et Obis: The Dangers of Traditional Eye Medicine. Lancet. 344. (1994)1588-1598.

Abt, A.B., OH, J.Y., Huntington, R.A & Burkhart, K.K. Chinese Herbal Medicine induced acute Renal Failure. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1995; (1995). 155.

Oshikoya, KA. Njokanma, O.F., Chukwura, H.A., Ojo, O.I. Adverse drug reactions in Nigerian children. Paediatric and Perinatal Drug Therapy. 2007, 8: 81-88.

Furnharm, A. Why do People Chose and use Complimentary Therapies? In Complimentary Medicine an Objective Appraisal. Oxford: (1996) Butter mount- Heinemann.

Akunyili, D.N., Ekpo, B., Orisakwe, O.E. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies. Science of Total Environment. 369: (2006) 35-41.

Ogbera, A.O, Dada, O, Adeyeye, F., & Jewo P.I. Complementary and alternative medicine use in diabetes mellitus. West African Journal of Medicine. 29: (2010) 158-162.

Maxwell, R.J. Quality Assessment in Heck, Br Med J 288: (1984). 1470-1472.

Fernandez CM.The Toronto Hospital Experience, Ann Emerg Med 24: (1994). 1092-1096.

Singn, H., Haqq, E.D., Mustapha, N. Patients’ Perception and Satisfaction with Health Care Professionals at Primary Care Facilities in Trinidad and Tobago .Bull World Health Organ. 77: (1999). 356-360.

Offilli, A.N., Otuwe, C.C. Patients Assessment and Efficiency of Service at a Teaching Hospital in a Developing Country. An Afr Med 4: (2005)150-163.

Dansky, K.H., & Miller, J. Patient Satisfaction with Ambulatory Health care Services: Waiting Time and Filing Time, Hosp Health Service Admin 42:1 (1997)65-77.

Bamgboye, E.O., Erinosho, H.O., Ogunlesi, A.O. The Waiting Time at the Children Emergency Room. University College Ibadan, Nig J Pediatr. 19: (1994). 9-14.

Adepoju, G.K. The Attitudes and Perceptions of Urban and Rural Dwellers to Traditional Medical Practice in Nigeria: A Comparative Analysis, International Journal of Gender and Health Studies Vol. 3, No. 1 and 2. (2005). 190-201.

Duru, C. B. , Uwakwe, K. A. , Chinomnso, N. C. , Mbachi, I. I. , Diwe, K. C. , Agunwa, C. C., Iwu, A. C., & Merenu, I. A. Socio-demographic Determinants of Herbal Medicine Use in Pregnancy Among Nigerian Women Attending Clinics in a Tertiary Hospital in Imo State, South-East, Nigeria. American Journal of Medicine Studies, 4(1) (2016)110.

Sarki, Z.M., Danjuma, M.H. Socio-demographic Factors and Utilization of Traditional Medicine in Kazaure Town, Jigawa State Nigeria. International Journal of Emerging Knowledge, 3(1) (2015). pp 9-20.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.254532


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Joseph Oluyem, Muhammed Abubakar Yinusa, Abdullateef Raji, Joseph Adejoke


 All open access articles published in AJNP are distributed under the terms of the  Creative Commons Attribution-  4.0 International License

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.


 Flag Counter