Antibacterial Activity Of Essential Oil Of Syzygium cumini Leaf Against Pathogenic And Spoilage Bacteria Isolated From Cheese

Bashirat Olamide Yusuf


local cheese has been reported to be a high risk food in Nigeria due to the possible transmission of numerous spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. This study therefore investigated not only the spoilage and pathogenic bacteria associated with local cheese sold within Ilorin metropolis but also microbiological food safety of the food through the use of Syzygium cumini oil as a preservative. Samples of wara were collected from selected seller across the metropolis and analysed for the presence of different bacterial species using spread plate method on appropriate selective growth media. All the bacterial isolates were identified using biochemical test. Invitro therapeutic efficacy of S.cumini oil aginst foodborne isolates was carried out using Kirby-Bauer method. The most six prevalent bacterial isolates were Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogene, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the wara. Hydrodistilled leaves of Syzygium cumini yielded 0.32% (v/w) of essential oil. Examination of the oil by GC and GC/MS uncovered that the greater part of the oil was comprised by sesquiterpenes. Other outstanding constituents were Cis-Beta-Farnesene (1.40%), Beta-Ocimene (2.11%), Beta-bisabolol (1.48%), Beta-Ocimene (2.11%), and D-Limonene (2.89%). Antibacterial action was measured base on the zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration. The oil repressed the development of Proteus vulgaris at 25% concentration, Escherichia coli at 12.5% concentration, Listeria monocytogene at 6.25% concentration, Salmonella typhimurium at 12.5% concentration and Staphylococcus aureusat 6.25% concentration while no action was recorded against B. subtilis. Highest activity, represented by diameter of zone of clearance around the loaded wells was recorded for Staphylococcus aureus. Accordingly, the oil can be an elective method for averting spoilage in stored wara in this manner expanding its time span of edibility.


Syzygium cumini, wara, Antibacterial Activity, Essential Oil, Pathogenic, spoilage Bacteria

Full Text:



Adams R.P. (1995). Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry. Allured Publ. Corp., Carol Stream, IL.

Adetunji, V.O, Alonge, D.O, Singh, R.K. and Chen, J. (2008). Production of wara, a West African soft cheese using lemonjuice as coagulant (LWT). J. Chem. Swiss soc. Food Sci. Technol; 41:331-336.

Andrews,J. M. (2001). "Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.48(1): 5–16

Ayyanar, M. Subash-Babu, P.(2013). Novel therapeutic agent for diabetics. Asian Pacific Journal of Troical Biomedical.21(3): 232-243.

Bakkali, F., Averbeck, S., Averbeck, D., Idaomar, M. (2008). Biological effects of essential oils- A review. Food Chemical Toxicology.46(2): 446-475.

Balinga, M.S., Bhat, H.P., Balinga, B.R.V., Wilson, R., Palatty, P.L., (2011). A review of the chemistry and pharmacology of the date fruits. Food Research International, 46(7): 1812-1822.

Bozin B, Mimica-Dukic N, Simin N, Anackov G (2006). Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some Lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry. 54(5): 1822-1828.

British Pharmacopoeia II. 1980. H.M. Stationary Office London. 109.

Ekwenye, U.N. and Elegalam, N.N. (2005). Antibacterial activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) and garlic (Allium sativum L) extracts on Echerichia coli and Samonella typhi. International Jounal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Science.1 (4): 411-416.

Euzéby J.P. (2008). "Bacillus". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature

Fawole, M.O. and Oso, B.A. (2004) Characterization of Bacteria Laboratory Manual of Microbiology. 4th Edition, Spectrum Book Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria, pp: 24-33.

Friedman, M. Henika, P.R. and Mandrell, E.R. (2002). Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, ListeriaMonocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Jounal of Food Protection65(10): 1545-1560.

Hajji F., Fkih-Tetouani S. and Tantaoui-Elaraki A. (1993) Antimicrobial activity of twenty one Eucalyptus essential oils. Fitoterapia 1: 71–78.

Jennings W. and Shibamoto, (1980). Qualitative Analysis of Flavor Volatiles by Gas Capillary Chromatography. Academic Press, New York.

Joseph J.K. and Akinyosoye F.A. (1997). Comparative studies on Red SorghumExtract and Other chemicals as preservatives for West African soft cheese. Int. Dairy J. 193-198.

Joulain, D. and Koenig, W.A. (1998). The atlas of spectral data of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. E.B. Verlag Hamburg, Germany.

Kamatou G.P.P. and Viljoen A.M. (2010) A review of the application and pharmacological properties of α-bisabolol and α-bisabolol-rich oils. Journal of American Oil Chemistry and Sociology. 87: 1–7.

Li L., Zhang Y., Seeram N.P., (2009).Structure of anthocyanins from Eugenia jambolana fruit. National Production Communication. 4(2):217−219

Madhu Gupta, Sushil Sharma and Rekha Bhadauria (2015) Fungitoxic activityof fruit extracts of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels against plant pathogenic fungi Alternariaalternata and Fusarium oxysporum. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 48(4): 354-364.

Martin, Diane M. Gershenzon, Jonathan andBohlmann, Jörg (2003). "Induction of Volatile Terpene Biosynthesis and Diurnal Emission by Methyl Jasmonate in Foliage of Norway Spruce". Plant Physiology132 (3): 1586–1599.

Mohammed, H. G., Gaafar, A. M. and Soliman, A. S.(2016). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Eight Plants Species from Different Families against some pathogenic Microorganism. Research Journal of Biological Science.11(1): 28-34.

Oladipo I.C., Onyeruke I.C. and Adebiyi, A.O.(2009); Microbiological analysis of some Vended Sachet water in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. African Journal of food Science 3(12): 406-412.

Peschel W., Sanchez-Rabaneda F., Dieckmann W., Plescher A. and Gartzia I. (2006). An industrial approach in the search of natural antioxidants fromvegetable and fruits wastes. Food Chemistry. 97(1):137–150.

Pichersky E., Noel J.P., Dudareva N. (2006). Biosynthesis of plant volatiles: Nature’s diversity and ingenuity. Science 311(5762): 808-811.

Raheem V.D and saris, D.E.J. (2009). Characterization and Application of Calotropisprocera, a coagulant in Nigeria wara cheese.International Journal of Food Science and Technology, in press.8(12): 2250-3153

Tantaoui-Elaraki A., Lattaoui N., Errifi A. and Benjilali B. (1993) Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. satureioides. J Essential Oil Research 5(1): 45–53.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Bashirat Olamide Yusuf


 All open access articles published in AJNP are distributed under the terms of the  Creative Commons Attribution-  4.0 International License


 Flag Counter